help tostranksum
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Title
tostranksum -- Two-sample rank sum test for stochastic equivalence
Syntax
Two-sample stochastic equivalence rank sum test
ranksum varname [if] [in], by(groupvar) [, eqvtype(type) eqvlevel(#) uppereqvlevel(#) ccontinuity alpha(#) relevance]
tostranksum options Description
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Main
* by(groupvar) grouping variable
eqvtype(string) specify equivalence threshold with Delta or epsilon
eqvlevel(#) the level of tolerance defining the equivalence interval
uppereqvlevel(#) the upper value of an asymmetric equivalence interval
ccontinuity include a continuity correction
alpha(#) set nominal type I level; default is alpha(0.05)
relevance perform & report combined tests for difference and equivalence
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* by(groupvar) is required.
by is allowed with tostranksum see [D] by.
Description
tostranksum tests the stochastic dominance of two independent samples (that is, unpaired or unmatched data) by using the z
approximation to the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, which was generalized to different sample sizes by the Mann-Whitney two-sample
statistic (Wilcoxon 1945; Mann and Whitney 1947) in a two one-sided tests approach (Schuirmann, 1987). Typically rank sum null
hypotheses are framed from an assumption of stochastic equality (or distributional sameness) between two populations (e.g. Ho:
P(X > Y) = 0.5), rejecting this assumption only with sufficient evidence. When performing tests of stochastic equivalence, the
null hypothesis is framed as one population stochastically dominates the other by at least as much as the equivalence interval
defined by some chosen level of tolerance (as specified by eqvtype and eqvlevel).
With respect to the rank sum test, a negativist null hypothesis takes one of the following two forms depending on whether
tolerance is defined in terms of Delta (equivalence expressed in the same units as the summed ranks) or in terms of epsilon
(equivalence expressed in the units of the z distribution):
Ho: |W - E(W)| >= Delta,
where the equivalence interval ranges from (W - E(W))-Delta to (W - E(W))+Delta, and where W is the rank-sum statistic and
E(W) is its mean if there is no stochastic dominance. This translates directly into two one-sided null hypotheses:
Ho1: Delta - [W - E(W)] <= 0; and
Ho2: [W - E(W)] + Delta <= 0
-OR-
Ho: |z| >= epsilon,
where the equivalence interval ranges from -epsilon to epsilon. This also translates directly into two one-sided null
hypotheses:
Ho1: epsilon - z <= 0; and
Ho2: z + epsilon <= 0
When an asymmetric equivalence interval is defined using the uppereqvlevel option the general negativist null hypothesis
becomes:
Ho: [W - E(W)] <= Delta_lower, or [W - E(W)] >= Delta_upper,
where the equivalence interval ranges from [W - E(W)] + Delta_lower to [W - E(W)] + Delta_upper. This also translates
directly into two one-sided null hypotheses:
Ho1: Delta_upper - [W - E(W)] <= 0; and
Ho2: [W - E(W)] - Delta_lower <= 0
-OR-
Ho: z <= epsilon_lower, or z >= epsilon_upper,
Ho1: epsilon_upper - z <= 0; and
Ho2: z - epsilon_lower <= 0
NOTE: the appropriate level of alpha is precisely the same as in the corresponding two-sided test for stochastic dominance, so
that, for example, if one wishes to make a type I error %5 of the time, one simply conducts both of the one-sided tests of Ho1
and Ho2 by comparing the resulting p-value to 0.05 (Wellek, 2010).
tostranksum is for use with unpaired/unmatched data. For equivalence tests on paired/matched data, see tostsignrank.
Options for ranksum
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by(groupvar) is required. It specifies the name of the grouping variable.
eqvtype(string) defines whether the equivalence interval will be defined in terms of Delta or epsilon (delta, or epsilon).
These options change the way that evqlevel is interpreted: when delta is specified, the evqlevel is measured in the units of
the rank sums, and when epsilon is specified, the evqlevel is measured in multiples of the standard deviation of the z
distribution; put another way epsilon = Delta/standard error. The default is epsilon.
Defining tolerance in terms of epsilon means that it is not possible to reject any test of mean equivalence Ho if epsilon <=
the critical value of z for a given alpha. Because epsilon = Delta/standard error, we can see that it is not possible to
reject any Ho if Delta <= the product of the standard error and critical value of z for a given alpha. tostranksum reports
when either of these conditions obtain. Given that the variance of rank sum distributions can be very large, tolerance should
be specified using delta only with great care
eqvlevel(#) defines the equivalence threshold for the tests depending on whether eqvtype is delta or epsilon (see above).
Researchers are responsible for choosing meaningful values of Delta or epsilon. The default value is 1 (certain to be
meaningless) when delta is the eqvtype and 2 when epsilon is the eqvtype.
uppereqvlevel(#) defines the upper equivalence threshold for the test, and transforms the meaning of eqvlevel to mean the lower
equivalence threshold for the test. Also, eqvlevel is assumed to be a negative value. Taken together, these correspond to
Schuirmann's (1987) asymmetric equivalence intervals. If uppereqvlevel==|eqvlevel|, then uppereqvlevel will be ignored.
ccontinuity specifies that the test statistics incorporate a continuity correction using |W-E(W)|-0.5, but retaining the sign of
the z-statistic after the correction has been applied (see eqvtype above).
alpha(#) specifies the nominal type I error rate. The default is alpha(0.05).
relevance reports results and inference for combined tests for stochastic difference and stochastic equivalence for a specific
alpha, eqvtype, and eqvlevel. See the end of the Discussion section in tost for more details on inference from combined
tests.
Examples
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Setup
. webuse fuel2
Perform rank-sum equivalence test on mpg by using the two groups defined by treat
. tostranksum mpg, by(treat) eqvt(epsilon) eqvl(3)
Perform asymmetric rank-sum equivalence test on mpg by using the two groups defined by treat, and add a continuity correction
. tostranksum mpg, by(treat) eqvt(epsilon) eqvl(3) upper(2.5) cc
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Saved results
tostranksum saves the following in r():
Scalars
r(N_1) sample size n_1
r(N_2) sample size n_2
r(z1) z statistic for Ho1 (upper)
r(z2) z statistic for Ho2 (lower)
r(p1) P(Z >= z1)
r(p2) P(Z >= z2)
r(Var_a) adjusted variance
r(group1) value of variable for first group
r(sum_obs) actual sum of ranks for first group
r(sum_exp) expected sum of ranks for first group
r(Delta) Delta, tolerance level defining the equivalence interval; OR
r(Du) Delta_upper, tolerance level defining the equivalence interval's upper side; AND
r(Dl) Delta_lower, tolerance level defining the equivalence interval's lower side; OR
r(epsilon) epsilon, tolerance level defining the equivalence interval
r(eu) epsilon_upper, tolerance level defining the equivalence interval's upper side; AND
r(el) epsilon_lower, tolerance level defining the equivalence interval's lower side
r(relevance) Relevance test conclusion for given alpha and Delta/epsilon
Author
Alexis Dinno
Portland State University
alexis.dinno@pdx.edu
Development of tost is ongoing, please contact me with any questions, bug reports or suggestions for improvement. Fixing bugs
will be facilitated by sending along (1) a copy of the data (de-labeled or anonymized is fine), (2) a copy of the command used
and (3) a copy of the exact output of the command.
Suggested citation
Dinno A. 2017. tostranksum: Two-sample rank sum test for stochastic equivalence. Stata software package. URL:
https://www.alexisdinno.com/stata/tost.html
References
Mann, H. B., and D. R. Whitney. 1947. On a test whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other.
Annals of Mathematical Statistics 18: 50-60.
Schuirmann, D. A. 1987. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and the power approach for assessing the equivalence
of average bioavailability. Pharmacometrics 15: 657-680
Wellek, S. 2010. Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence and Noninferiority, second edition. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press.
p. 31
Wilcoxon, F. 1945. Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics 1: 80-83.
Also See
Help: tost, pkequiv, ranksum